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Coenzyme Q10
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[What is CoQ10? | Should I Take CoQ10?]
[What is the Dosage? | CoQ10 and Heart Failure | CoQ10 Deficiency]
[CoQ10 and Heart Disease | References]

Also see: Should Parkinson's Disease Patients Also Take CoenzymeQ10?

References

  1. Gian Paolo Littarru (1994) Energy and Defense. Facts and perspectives on CoenzymeQ10 in biology and medicine. Casa Editrice Scientifica Internazionale, pp 1-91.
  2. Crane F.L., Hatefi Y., Lester R.I., Widmer C. (1957) Isolation of a quinone from beef heart mitochondria. In: Biochimica et Biophys. Acta, vol. 25, pp 220-221.
  3. Morton R.A., Wilson G.M., Lowe J.S., Leat W.M.F. (1957) Ubiquinone. In: Chemical Industry, pp 1649.
  4. Mellors A., Tappel A.L. (1966) Quinones and quinols as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Lipids, vol. 1, pp 282-284.
  5. Mellors A., Tappel A.L. (1966) The inhibition of mitochondrial peroxidation by ubiquinone and ubiquinol. J. Biol. Chem., vol. 241, pp 4353-4356.
  6. Littarru G.P., Ho L., Folkers K. (1972) Deficiency of Coenzyme Q10 in human heart disease. Part I and II. In: Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res., 42, n. 2, 291:42, n. 3:413.
  7. Mitchell P. (1976) Possible molecular mechanisms of the protonmotive function of cytochrome systems. In: J. Theoret. Biol., vol. 62, pp 327-367.
  8. Mitchell P. (1991) The vital protonmotive role of coenzyme Q. In: Folkers K., Littarru G.P., Yamagami T. (eds) Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 6, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3-10.
  9. Mitchell P. (1988) Respiratory chain systems in theory and practice. In: Advances in Membrane Biochemistry and Bioenergetics, Kim C.H., et al. (eds), Plenum Press, New York, pp 25-52.
  10. Mitchell P. (1979) Kelin's respiratory chain concept and its chemiosmotic consequences. In: Journal Science, vol. 206, pp 1148-1159.
  11. Ernster L. (1977) Facts and ideas about the function of coenzyme Q10 in the Mitochondria. In: Folkers K., Yamamura Y. (eds) Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 15-8.
  12. Littarru G.P., Lippa S., Oradei A., Fiorni R.M., Mazzanti L. Metabolic and diagnostic implications of blood CoQ10 levels. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 6 (1991) Folkers K., Yamagami T., and Littarru G. P. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1-555.
  13. Ghirlanda G., Oradei A., Manto A., Lippa S., Uccioli L., Caputo S., Greco A.V., Littarru G.P. (1993) Evidence of Plasma CoQ10 - Lowering Effect by HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: A double blind , placebo-controlled study. Clin. Pharmocol., J. 33, 3, 226-229.
  14. Folkers K., Langsjoen Per H.,Willis R., Richardson P., Xia L.,Ye C., Tamagawa H. (1990) Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. Vol. 87, pp.8931-8934.
  15. Folkers K., Vadhanavikit S., Mortensen S.A. (1985) Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. In: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A., vol. 82(3), pp 901-904.
  16. Mortensen S.A., Vadhanavikit S., Folkers K. (1984) Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 i myocardial failure. In: Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. X(7) 497-502.
  17. Hiasa Y., Ishida T., Maeda T., Iwanc K., Aihara T., and Mori H. (1984) Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 3 (1981) Folkers K., Yamamura Y., (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 291-301.
  18. Kamikawa T., Kobayashi A., Yamashita T., Hayashi H., and Yamazaki N. (1985) Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris. In: Am. J. Cardiol.; 56:247-251.
  19. Langsjoen Per.H., Vadhanavikit S., Folkers K. (1985) Response of patients in classes III and IV of cardiomyopathy to therapy in a blind and crossover trial with coenzyme Q10. In: Proc. Natl. Acad. of Sci., U.S.A., vol. 82, pp 4240-4244.
  20. Judy W.V., Hall J.H., Toth P.D., Folkers K. (1986) Double blind-double crossover study of coenzyme Q10 in heart failure. In: Folkers K., Yamamura Y. (eds) Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q, vol. 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 315-323.
  21. Rossi E., Lombardo A., Testa M., Lippa S., Oradei A., Littarru G.P., Lucente M. Coppola E., Manzoli U. Coenzyme Q10 in ischaemic cardiopathy. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 6 (1991) Folkers K., Yamagami T., and Littarru G. P. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 321-326.
  22. Morisco C., Trimarco B., Condorelli M. Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: A long-term multicenter randomized study. In: Seventh International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q Folkers K., Mortensen S.A., Littarru G.P., Yamagami T., and Lenaz G. (eds) The Clinical Investigator, (1993) 71:S 34-S 136.
  23. Schneeberger W., Muller-Steinwachs J., Anda L.P., Fuchs W., Zilliken F., Lyson K., Muratsu K., and Folkers K. A clinical double blind and crossover trial with coenzyme Q10 on patients with cardiac disease. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 5 (1986) Folkers K., Yamamura Y., (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 325-333.
  24. Schardt F., Welzel D., Schiess W., and Toda K. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on ischaemia-induced ST-segment depression: A double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 6 (1991) Folkers K., Yamagami T., and Littarru G. P. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 385-403.
  25. Swedberg K., Hoffman-Berg C., Rehnqvist N., Astrom H. (1991) Coenzyme Q10 as an adjunctive in treatment of congestive heart failure. In: 64th Scientific Sessions American Heart Association, Abstract 774-6.
  26. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q. (1977) Folkers K., Yamamura Y. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1-315.
  27. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Vol. 2 (1980) Yamamura Y., Folkers K., and Ito Y. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1-456.
  28. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Vol. 3 (1981) Folkers K., Yamamura Y., (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1-414.
  29. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q , Vol. 4 (1983) Folkers K., Yamamura Y., (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1-432.
  30. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Vol. 5 (1986) Folkers K., Yamamura Y., (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1-410.
  31. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Vol. 6 (1991) Folkers K., Yamagami T., and Littarru G. P. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1-555.
  32. Seventh International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1993) Folkers K., Mortensen S.A., Littarru G.P., Yamagami T., and Lenaz,G. (eds) The Clinical Investigator, Supplement to Vol.71 / Issue 8, pp S51-S177.
  33. Eighth International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1994) Littarru G.P., Battino M. , Folkers K. (Eds) The Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 15 (Supplement), pp S1-S294.
  34. Spigset O. (1994) Reduced effect of warfarin caused by ubidecarenone. Lancet Nov 12 Vol. 344, pp. 8933.
  35. Mortensen S.A., Vadhanavikit S., Folkers K. (1984) Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 in myocardial failure. In: Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res., vol. X(7), pp 497-502.
  36. Mortensen S.A., Vadhanavikit S., Baandrup U., Folkers K. (1985) Long term coenzyme Q10 therapy: a major advance in the management of resistant myocardial failure. In: Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., vol. 11(8), pp 581-593.
  37. Langsjoen P.H., Folkers K., Lyson K., Muratsu K., Lyson T., Langsjoen P. H. Effective and safe therapy with coenzyme Q10 for cardiomyopathy. In: Klin. Wochenschr. (1988) 66:583-593.
  38. Langsjoen P. H., Langsjoen, P. H., Folkers, K. (1989) Long term efficacy and safety of coenzyme Q10 therapy for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. In: The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 65, pp 521 - 523.
  39. Mortensen S.A., Vadhanavikit S., Muratsu K., Folkers K. (1990) Coenzyme Q10: Clinical benefits with biochemical correlates suggesting a scientific breakthrough in the management of chronic heart failure. In: Int. J. Tissue React., vol. 12 (3), pp 155-162.
  40. Ursini T., Gambini C., Paciaroni E., and Littarru G.P. Coenzyme Q10 treatment of heart failure in the elderly: Preliminary results. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 6 (1991) Folkers K., Yamagami T., and Littarru G. P. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 473-480.
  41. Poggessi L., Galanti G., Comeglio M., Toncelli L., Vinci M. (1991) Effect of coenzyme Q10 on left ventricular function in patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. Curr. Ther. Res. 49:878-886.
  42. Langsjoen H.A., Langsjoen P. H., Langsjoen P. H., Willis R., Folkers K. (1994) Usefulness of coenzyme Q10 in clinical cardiology, a long-term study. In: Eighth International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Littarru G.P., Battino M. , Folkers K. (Eds) The Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 15 (Supplement), pp S165-S175.
  43. Baggio E., Gandini R., Plancher A.C., Passeri M., Carmosino G. Italian multicenter study on safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 adjunctive therapy in heart failure. In: Eighth International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1994) Littarru G.P., Battino M. , Folkers K. (Eds) The Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 15 (Supplement), pp S287-S294.
  44. Langsjoen Per H., Langsjoen Peter H., Folkers K. Isolated diastolic dysfunction of the myocardium and its response to CoQ10 treatment. In: Seventh International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q. Folkers, K., Mortensen S.A., Littarru G.P., Yamagami T., and Lenaz G. (eds) The Clinical Investigator, (1993) 71:S 140-S 144.
  45. Oda T. Recovery of the Frank-Starling mechanism by coenzyme Q10 in patients with load-induced contractility depression. In: Eighth International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1994) The Molecular Aspects of Medicine, in print.
  46. Langsjoen P. H., Langsjoen P. H., Willis R., Folkers K. (1994) Treatment of essential hypertension with coenzyme Q10. In: Eighth International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1994) Littarru G.P., Battino M. , Folkers K. (Eds) The Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 15 (Supplement), pp S287-S294.
  47. Pihko H., Saarinen U., and Paetau A. (1989) Wernicke encephalopathy - a preventable cause of death: Report of 2 children with malignant disease. Pediatric Neurology vol. 5 no. 4, pp 237-242.
  48. Hansen I.L. (1976) Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. Gingival leucocytic deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in patients with periodontal disease. In: Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp 729-738.
  49. Iwamoto Y., Watanabe T., Okamoto H., Ohata N., Folkers K. Clinical effect of coenzyme Q10 on periodontal disease. In: Folkers, K., Yamamura, Y., (eds) Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q10, (1981) vol. 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 109-119.
  50. Folkers K., Langsjoen P. H., et al. (1988) Biochemical deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in HIV-infection and the exploratory treatment. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications vol. 153, no. 2, pp 888-896.
  51. Langsjoen P. H., Langsjoen P. H., Folkers K., Richardson P. Treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection with coenzyme Q10. In: Folkers K., Littarru G.P., and Yamagami, T., (eds) Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, (1991) vol. 6, pp 409-415.
  52. Cortes E.P, Mohinder G., Patel M., Mundia A., and Folkers K. Study of Administration of coenzyme Q10 to Adriamycin treated cancer patients. In:Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1977). Folkers K., Yamamura Y. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 267-273.
  53. Combs A.B., Faria D.T., Leslie S.W., and Bonner H.W. (1981) Effect of coenzyme Q10 on Adriamycin induced changes in myocardial calcium. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, vol. 3 Folkers, K., Yamamura Y., (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 137-144.
  54. Judy W.V. Hall J., H., Dugan W., Toth P.D., and Folkers K. Coenzyme Q10 reduction of Adriamycin toxicity. In: Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1983), vol. 4 Folkers K., Yamamura Y., (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 231-241.
  55. Lockwood K., Moesgaard S., Yamamoto T., Folkers K. Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995 Jul 6;212(1):172-7.
  56. Lockwood K., Moesgaard S., Hanioka T., Folkers K. Apparent partial remission of breast cancer in 'high risk' patients supplemented with nutritional antioxidants, essential fatty acids and coenzyme Q10. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s231-40.
  57. Lockwood K., Moesgaard S., Folkers K. Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994 Mar 30;199(3):1504-8.
  58. Folkers K., Brown R., Judy W.V., and Morita M. (1993) Survival of cancer patients on therapy with coenzyme Q10. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., Ms. No. G-8658.
  59. Mellstedt H., Osterborg A., Nylander M., Morita M., and Folkers K. A deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in conventional cancer therapy and blood levels of CoQ10 in cancer patients in Sweden. In: Eighth International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1994) The Molecular Aspects of Medicine, in print.
  60. Bowry V.W., Mohr D., Cleary J., Stocker R. (1995) Prevention of tocopherol-mediated peroxidation in ubiquinol-10-free human low density lipoprotein. J Biol Chem 1995 Mar 17;270(11):5756-63.
  61. 61Ingold K.U., Bowry V.W., Stocker R., Walling C. (1993) Autoxidation of lipids and antioxidation by alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol in homogeneous solution and in aqueous dispersions of lipids: unrecognized consequences of lipid particle size as exemplified by oxidation of human low density lipoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993 Jan 1;90(1):45-9.
  62. Sun I.L., Sun E.E., Crane F.L., Morre, V.J., Lindgren A., and Low H. Requirement for coenzyme Q in plasma membrane electron transport. In: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U SA 89, 11126-11130 (1992).
  63. Linnane A.W., Zhang C., Baumer A., Nagley P. (1992) Mitochondrial DNA mutation and the aging process: bioenergy and pharmacological intervention. Mutation Research 275, pp. 195-208.
  64. Martinius R.D., Linnane A.W., Nagley P. (1993) Growth of human namalwa cells lacking oxidative phosphorylation can be sustained by redox compounds potassium ferricyanide or coenzyme Q10 putatively acting through the plasma membrane oxidase. In: Biochem. Mol. Biol. Internat. 31, 997-1005.
  65. Lawin A., Martinius R.D., McMullen G., Nagley P., Vaillant F., Wolvetang E. J., Linnane A.W. The universality of bioenergetic disease: The role of mitochondrial DNA mutation and the putative inter-relationship between mitochondria and plasma membrane NADH oxidases. In: Eighth International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q (1994) Littarru G.P., Battino M. , Folkers K. (Eds) The Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 15 (Supplement), pp S13-S27.

Published with exclusive permission of Peter H. Langsjoen.
Permission is granted to reproduce this material for noncommercial use provided that the text, author's name, and copyright statement are not changed in any way.

Authors:
Peter H. Langsjoen, M.D., F.A.C.C. and Alena M. Langsjoen, M.S.

Sincere appreciation is expressed to Hans Langsjoen of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Karl Folkers and Richard Willis of the University of Texas at Austin, Frederick Crane of Purdue University in Indiana, Lars Ernster of the Stockholm University, Sweden, Gian Paolo Littarru, of the University of Ancona Medical School, Italy, and my wife Alena Langsjoen for their help in the completion of this manuscript.

Peter H. Langsjoen, M.D., F.A.C.C.,P.A.
1120 Medical Dr.
Tyler, TX 75701

© Copyright 1994

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