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Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO)
for former Vioxx Users
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[Cetyl Myristoleate Functions | An Update on CMO
[History of Cetyl Myristoleate | Subsequent CMO Research ]
[Mechanisms of CMO Action | Recommended CMO Dose | Clearing CMO Confusion ]
[Our Customer Testimonials]

Cetyl Myristoleate is used as a complementary and alternative medication for joint health issues.  Many of our customers use CMO in conjunction with pain medication prescribed by their Doctor.  Former Vioxx and Celebrex users may consider using CMO in conjunction with an alternative pain medication prescribed by their Doctor.  They often find that they can significantly cut down on the pain medication after taking CMO for a while (of course, under the supervision of their doctor).

Cetyl Myristoleate Functions
Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) seems to function in at least four different ways. One of the first observations noted when favorable CMO results are seen is the lubricating quality of Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO). Decrease or loss of morning stiffness is commonly noted shortly after commencing CMO treatment. Next, Cetyl Myristoleate functions as an anti-inflammatory. Lessening of swollen digits is often seen after the 4th or 5th week of Cetyl Myristoleate treatment. Third, Cetyl Myristoleate CMO functions as an immunomodulator or immune system regulator. Cetyl Myristoleate’s ability to regulate or calm down hyper-immune responses is one of the most exciting qualities and shows that CMO may be helpful in addressing the symptoms related to many autoimmune diseases. And finally, Cetyl Myristoleate functions as an analgesic or painkiller and CMO has been helpful for many sufferers of muscle tension headaches and fibromyalgia.

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An Update on Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO)   Chuck Cochran, D.C.
I can’t believe it, but it’s been over four years since I first wrote a small booklet entitled Dr. Chuck Cochran Discusses Arthritis & Cetyl Myristoleate. As you can imagine a lot has transpired since that time. We now have quite a few healthcare practitioners who use Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) regularly in their offices and Cetyl Myristoleate is being sold through several nutritional lines in health food stores. Several multi-level companies now offer Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) and related products in their lines, and recently, Cetyl Myristoleate was put in a formula to treat arthritis in dogs. Cetyl Myristoleate has also been written about in Robert Atkins’, M.D. most recent book entitled Vita-Nutrient Solution – Nature’s Answer to Drugs. And Sherry Rogers, M.D., for her soon-to-be-completed book on chronic pain, recently interviewed me about Cetyl Myristoleate. I also had the fortunate opportunity to be interviewed by Total Health (Volume 21, No. 1). I’ve found that there’s a big difference in all of these CMO products, however, and so I appreciate the opportunity to share some of the information that I’ve gathered since I was first introduced to Cetyl Myristoleate - this marvelous molecule.

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The History of Cetyl Myristoleate
For those of you who have not heard or read about cetyl myristoleate, let me give you just a little background. The Cetyl Myristoleate discovery occurred during a two-year period from 1962 to 1964 by Harry W. Diehl while on a personal quest to find a cure for arthritis. Harry was a research chemist working in sugar metabolism at the National Institutes for Health in Bethesda, Maryland. During his time there, over 40 years, he was responsible for isolating and identifying over 500 chemical compounds. Many of these were patented. His most notable discovery, prior to Cetyl Myristoleate, was a sugar used in the preparation of Dr. Jonas Salk’s oral polio vaccination. His discovery of Cetyl Myristoleate actually occurred in a laboratory that he had set up in his own home. The story of how he isolated the Cetyl Myristoleate molecule that may one day be hailed as the most significant nutritional discovery of the 20th century and nature’s answer to arthritis is simply wonderful. Unfortunately, I can’t relate the entire story in this short article. Hopefully, someday someone will write the story of this very intuitive researcher. In a nutshell, this is what Harry’s research revealed:

  • Mice are immune to arthritis.
  • The molecule that provides this immunity is Cetyl Myristoleate (the cetyl alcohol ester of the fourteen carbon chain fatty acid myristoleic acid).
  • Cetyl Myristoleate circulates in the bloodstream of mice at approximately 350 mg / kg bodyweight and with proper doses of Cetyl Myristoleate extracted from mice (450 –500 mg / kg body weight), he could provide rats with 100% immunity to adjuvant-induced arthritis.
  • After injecting the Cetyl Myristoleate into the rats, the highest concentrations were found in the liver.

Harry developed a way of synthesizing Cetyl Myristoleate by combining cetyl alcohol with myristoleic acid and found that the synthesized form of Cetyl Myristoleate was just as effective in providing rats immunity to adjuvant-induced arthritis as the naturally occurring form (extracted from mice).

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Subsequent CMO Research
A more recent Cetyl Myristoleate study, performed by H. Siemandi, M.D., Ph.D., was published in the August / September 1997 issue of the Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. This Cetyl Myristoleate study was performed as a randomized, double blind, placebo parallel trial with 382 patients who had been diagnosed with degenerative joint disease (DJD or osteoarthritis), rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. This group was divided into three groups for testing. The first Group A received a complex of fatty acids (90 grams) containing 12% Cetyl Myristoleate, the second Group B received the same complex of CMO fatty acid esters plus glucosamine hydrochloride, sea cucumber (a sea animal commonly found in the Great Barrier Reef in Australia – related to the Starfish), and hydrolyzed cartilage, and the third Group C received a placebo. Treatment consisted of a one-month protocol. Outcome measures included a variety of patient-reported, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic assessments. The results were as follows (expressed in percent improvement):



Group A

Group B

Group C

Treatment Response




M.D. Overall Assessment




Patient Overall Assessment




Joint Swelling Score




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Mechanisms of CMO Action and Indications
The exact mechanisms of Cetyl Myristoleate action are not fully understood. Several theories have been presented, but as of today, there has been no research in this regard. Being a fatty acid ester, one mechanism being presented is that Cetyl Myristoleate somehow manipulates the production of the favorable prostaglandins, (series 1 and/or 3) and leukotrienes over the unfavorable prostaglandins of the 2nd series and pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are unsaturated fatty acids that regulate many local metabolic processes including inflammation, platelet aggregation, pain, fluid balance, and nerve transmission. These effects could be accomplished by inhibition of the arachidonic acid cascade and the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways.

Another mechanism being discussed is that these CMO fatty acid esters are somehow incorporated into the phospholipid cell membranes and alter cell membrane permeability and receptor sites. This could explain the possible theory of altering T-lymphocyte function during the hyper-immune response related to autoimmune diseases. Although the mechanisms are unknown, we can clinically observe Cetyl Myristoleate’s effects.

Cetyl Myristoleate seems to function in at least four different ways. One of the first observations noted when favorable results are seen is the lubricating quality of Cetyl Myristoleate. Decrease or loss of morning stiffness is commonly noted shortly after commencing CMO treatment. Next, Cetyl Myristoleate functions as an anti-inflammatory. Lessening of swollen digits is often seen after the 4th or 5th week of Cetyl Myristoleate treatment. Third, Cetyl Myristoleate functions as an immunomodulator or immune system regulator. Cetyl Myristoleate’s ability to regulate or calm down hyper-immune responses is one of the most exciting qualities and shows that Cetyl Myristoleate may be helpful in addressing the symptoms related to many autoimmune diseases. And finally, Cetyl Myristoleate functions as an analgesic or painkiller and CMO has been helpful for many sufferers of muscle tension headaches and fibromyalgia.

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Recommended CMO Dose
We have found that many of those individuals who have taken Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO), and have not responded, have often taken doses far below what is recommended. Results are related to the quality of the product as well as the amount of Cetyl Myristoleate taken orally (therapeutic or loading dose). If we do a little mathematics, and use the amount of CMO circulating in the bloodstream of mice as a comparison (350 mg / kg), we conclude that a 160-pound person could require up to 24.5 grams CMO. Fortunately, possibly because human and mouse metabolism differ greatly, we have found that doses of 12 grams to 18 grams of elemental Cetyl Myristoleate as a therapeutic or loading dose taken over a three to four week period of time works fantastically well. However, there are those individuals that require a second CMO protocol. And once the desired results have been achieved, there are many individuals that benefit from taking much smaller, perhaps daily, CMO maintenance doses.

Concerning the quality, there is a wide degree of very diverse Cetyl Myristoleate products available today. In fact, some of the CMO formulas have no Cetyl Myristoleate in them at all! Before purchasing any of these formulas, please read the label to determine exactly how much Cetyl Myristoleate is available. It is imperative that the formula contains a minimum of 12% CMO levels. If the levels are below this amount, you’ll probably have to take a wheelbarrow full before seeing any results! In other words (let’s do a little math), if you’re trying to achieve a therapeutic dose of 12 grams of CMO and the CMO levels are at 12%, you will need a total of 100 grams of mixed fatty acid esters in this particular CMO formula. If the CMO levels are at 20%, you will need a total of only 60 grams. If the manufacturer has not listed the percentages and the total amount of fatty acid ester complex, I would be very hesitant in purchasing that particular product. Without this information, you have no way of determining how much you need to take, for how long, and what would be a good maintenance dose.

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Clearing CMO Confusion
There are many different Cetyl Myristoleate and related products available today. There are several which, either through ignorance or unethical marketing, have contributed to extensive confusion in the nutritional and healthcare industry. There are several issues that I’d like to address in this regard. First, Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) is not CMOTM. CMOTM is a trademarked product that is being sold as cerasomal cis-9 cetyl myristoleate, an analog of cetyl myristoleate. The term cerasomal (waxy body?) is not in your chemistry texts and was constructed by the manufacturer to set his product apart. The term analog is defined as a similarly structured molecule. In other words, CMOTM contains a similar molecule, but is not Cetyl Myristoleate. Chemical analysis performed on several occasions, using Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, and Flame Ionization Detection has revealed very little, if any, Cetyl Myristoleate in this product. Unfortunately, the manufacturer, as of today, has not disclosed exactly what his product is.

Another embarrassing mix up is that, at least, one of the manufacturers started with a raw material that contained high levels of myristic acid (C14:0) instead of myristoleic acid (C14:1). Myristic acid is the saturated analog of myristoleic acid and when esterified with cetyl alcohol produces Cetyl Myristate, not Cetyl Myristoleate. Before the sophisticated diagnostic procedures to analyze for CMO were developed, many of these products were analyzed using improper or inadequate methods. These products are now on our health food store shelves and in the MLM industry being sold as Cetyl Myristoleate, but in fact are Cetyl Myristate. Interestingly, there have been many who have experienced benefits from these Cetyl Myristate products. And I have found that, in one particular formula, the Cetyl Myristate seems to enhance the effectiveness of the Cetyl Myristoleate. They may form a true synergism.

And, finally, all Cetyl Myristoleate products are not created equally. Chemical analysis of several different products has revealed that the CMO levels range from 1% up to 40%. And to add to the confusion, I have found products that contain lower percentages of CMO (20% - 30%) that seem to work better than the Cetyl Myristoleate products with higher levels. Please note that there are no CMO products today that are 100% pure. With all of these products you will find a complex of other fatty acid esters, for example cetyl stearate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl palmitoleate, cetyl oleate, and cetyl myristate, in different proportions. What we’re now finding is that some of these fatty acid esters may inhibit the positive effects of the Cetyl Myristoleate, while others work with the CMO, as I mentioned above, in a cooperative way.

For those of you technical individuals out there, Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID) analysis is now considered one of the most accurate techniques for detecting these fatty acid esters. Here’s something that you may also find interesting. Further analysis of the product used by Dr. Siemandi in his study showed that it actually contained 10.8 grams of Cetyl Myristoleate, and not 18 grams, as stated in his report. And one very current analysis of this same material indicated that the CMO levels could have been only 9 grams delivered in a one- month protocol. It’s truly amazing what results were achieved with only 9 or 10 grams of active ingredient!

And for those of you who are suffering with any types of aches or pains, you and Cetyl Myristoleate deserve to get to know each other! God speed on your road to health!

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Reprinted with exclusive permission by Natrol, Inc.

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